Bone Density among the Punjabi Population

Padmasini Srinivasan*

Madha Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, Kovur Tamil Nadu, India

*Correspondence to: Padmasini Srinivasan, Madha Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, Kovur Tamil Nadu, India
Received: Apr 01, 2024; Accepted: Apr 10, 2024; Published: Apr 15, 2024
Citation: Srinivasan P (2024) Bone Density among the Punjabi Population. Journal of Anatomical Variation and Clinical Case Report 2:107. DOI:
Copyright: ©2024 Srinivasan P. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Bone density and the phenomens of bone loss with advanced age vary significantly across various populations. Collating data from various studies, including radiography of metacarpal bones, has revealed that Indians typically rank lower than other populations due to several factors, such as malnutrition, hormone related issues like hypothyroidism, genetic factors affecting bone growth and height, as well as malfunction in Vitamin D and calcium metabolism, along with diabetes. Thus, a study was conducted on the Punjabi population across all age groups, starting from the time of bone maturity. The findings clearly demonstrate poor acquisition of bone mass and pronounced bone loss in the elderly, with women exhibiting greater vulnerability compared to men in terms of poor bone strength and bone loss. This data holds significance for the development of public policies and healthcare initiatives aimed at addressing malnutrition, Vitamin D deficiency, and calcium issues from childhood to old age. Implementation of such measures could mitigate prevalent physical and mental health challenges in underdeveloped third-world countries like India. Despite facing similar challenges of poverty and malnutrition, the charts indicate that African populations exhibit higher bone density levels than Indian populations. 
Keywords: Bone; Populations; Indian populations

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract: Method for measurements of meta-carpal on radiographs (CCT) combined cortical thickness = D-d(DEQUEKER,1976)3    where, D- Subperiosteal diameter measured in mm at midshaft of 2nd right metacarpal and d – Endosteal diameter measured in mm at mid-shaft of 2nd right metacarpal. Line Segment CD bisects the 2nd metacarpal at midshaft, EF = Subperiosteal diameter at midshaft (refers to D), GH = Endosteal diameter at midshaft (Refers to d).